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Table 1 Available KCA algorithms based on free-text keystroke dynamics

From: TKCA: a timely keystroke-based continuous user authentication with short keystroke sequence in uncontrolled settings

Study Feature Method Dataset Performance Length
(Monrose and Rubin 1997) hold time, latency time k-NN, Euclidean distance collect ACC: 23% 31
(Dowland and Furnell 2004) n-graph flight time (n=2, 3), mean, standard deviation collect FAR: 4.9%,  
  keyword-based keystroke latency    FRR: 0%,  
     ANIA: 6,390,  
     ANGA: 68,755  
(Gunetti and Picardi 2005) n-graph flight time (n=2, 3, 4) ‘R’ and ‘A’ Distance collect FAR: 0.005% 700-900
     FRR: 4.833%  
(Montalvão Filho and Freire 2006) digraph flight time Markov Chain collect EER: 12.7% about 550
(Janakiraman and Sim 2007), held time, inter-key time Bhattacharyya Distance, collect ACC: 74-100% 1,500-100,000
(Sim and Janakiraman 2007)   Naive Bayes    
(Davoudi and Kabir 2009;2010) digraph flight time HDE, ‘R’ and ‘A’ Distance (Gunetti and Picardi 2005) FAR: 0.07%, FRR: 15.2% 700-900
(Harun et al. 2010)   ANN, some Distance (Montalvão Filho and Freire 2006) EER: 22.9% about 550
(Stewart et al. 2011) hold time, latency time, k-NN collect EER: 0.55% about 6,000
  percent usage of keys     
(Al Solami et al. 2011) most typed digraph Clustering (Gunetti and Picardi 2005) ACC: 100% 700-900
(Messerman et al. 2011) n-graph flight time (n=2, 3, 4) ‘R’ and ‘A’ Distance collect eFAR: 2.61%, iFAR: 2.02%, FRR: 1.84% 150-450
(Rahman et al. 2011) latency time ‘R’ and ‘A’ Distance collect EER: 10-15% 854-1,836
(Ferreira and Santos 2012) hold time, latency time, mean, standard deviation collect EER of 1.4% 250
  n-graph flight time (n=2, 3, 4)     
(Bours 2012) hold time, latency time mean, standard deviation collect ANIA: 182  
(Monaco et al. 2013) hold time, latency time mean, standard deviation collect EER: 3.7% 755
(Deutschmann et al. 2013)   Bayesian network collect ANIA: 760-950  
(Ahmed and Traore 2013) hold time, latency time, ANN collect EER: 2.13% 500
  n-graph flight time (n=2, 3)     
(Kang and Cho 2015) digraph flight time 12 different techniques collect EER: 5.64% 1,000
(Çeker and Upadhyaya 2016) hold time, digraph flight time One-class SVM (Vural et al. 2014) EER: 0 1,319-3,454
(Mondal and Bours 2017) hold time, total time, latency time, ANN, CPANN, SVM collect ANIA: 167 or larger  
  flight time, up-up time for digraph     
(Alshehri et al. 2017;2018) hold time, digraph flight time DTW collect, (Vural et al. 2014) ACC: 98.39%, 97.32% 100
(Huang et al. 2017) digraph flight time KDE (Gunetti and Picardi 2005), EER: 3.48%, 3.36%, 1.95%, 7.59% 1,000
    (Vural et al. 2014),   
    (Sun et al. 2016),   
    (Murphy et al. 2017)   
(Ayotte et al. 2019) digraph flight time KDE, Energy Distance, (Murphy et al. 2017) EER: 35.1%, 15.3%, 6.3%, 3.6% 100, 200, 500, 1,000
   Kolmogorov-Smirnov    
(Xiaofeng et al. 2019) keycode, hold time, latency CNN, RNN (Sun et al. 2016) EER: 3.04 30
  time, digraph flight time