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Table 7 The comparison of TKCA with previous KCA algorithms

From: TKCA: a timely keystroke-based continuous user authentication with short keystroke sequence in uncontrolled settings

Study Method Realized by Sample Size EER
(Gunetti and Picardi 2005) ‘R’ Distance (Huang et al. 2017) 1,000 10.36%
  ‘A’ Distance    
(Çeker and Upadhyaya 2016) One-class SVM (Huang et al. 2017) 1,000 15.67%
(Huang et al. 2017) KDE (Huang et al. 2017) 1,000 7.59%
(Alshehri et al. 2017) DTW This work 125 45.25%
(Ayotte et al. 2019) KDE, (Ayotte et al. 2019) 100, 35.1%,
  KS,   200, 15.3%,
  Energy   500, 6.3%,
    1,000 3.6%
(Xiaofeng et al. 2019) CNN, RNN This work 70 20.46%
TKCA Embedding, This work 30, 8.28%,
  Bi-LSTM,   70, 5.05%,
  Attention   90, 4.30%,
    190, 2.78%,
    490, 1.46%,
    990 0.85%