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Table 6 Comparison of IDS deployment strategies based on their positioning

From: A critical review of intrusion detection systems in the internet of things: techniques, deployment strategy, validation strategy, attacks, public datasets and challenges

  Advantages Disadvantages Data source
IDS deployment strategies Distributed IDS • HIDS can check end-to-end encrypted communications behaviour.
• No extra hardware is required.
• Detects intrusions by checking the host file system, system calls or network events.
• Every packet is reassembled
• Looks at the entire item, not streams only
• Delays in reporting attacks
• Consumes host resources
• It needs to be installed on each host.
• It can monitor attacks only on the machine where it is installed.
• Audits records, log files, Application Program Interface (API), rule patterns, system calls.
Centralized IDS • Do not impose an additional overhead on the sensor nodes.
• Detects attacks by checking network packets.
• Not required to install on each host.
• Can check various hosts in the same period.
• Capable of detecting the broadest ranges of network protocols
• IoT can be exposed if the centralized IDS is compromised.
• Challenge is to identify attacks from encrypted traffic.
• Dedicated hardware is required.
• It supports only the identification of network attacks.
• Difficult to analysis a high-speed network.
• The most serious threat is the insider attack.
• Not applicable
For a large scale IoT ecosystem.
• Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
• Network packets (TCP/UDP/ICMP),
• Management Information Base (MIB)
• Router NetFlow records
  Hierarchical • It uses NIDS, HIDS and wireless intrusion detection system (WIDS) presenting success in interoperability across heterogeneous Network types.
• IDS is likely to be extremely deployable across big and heterogeneous IoT networks,
• the complexity of the IDS Various