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Table 8 The comparison of different biometrics-based continuous authentication

From: TKCA: a timely keystroke-based continuous user authentication with short keystroke sequence in uncontrolled settings

Biometrics Study Environment Assign Filter Stability Additional Implementation Application
    tasks data   hardware cost scenarios
Keystroke (Gunetti and Picardi 2005) Uncontrolled Yes No Medium No Cheap Desktop Computers
dynamics (Çeker and Upadhyaya 2016) Uncontrolled Yes Yes     
  (Huang et al. 2017) Uncontrolled No No     
  (Alshehri et al. 2017) Uncontrolled Yes No     
  (Ayotte et al. 2019) Uncontrolled No No     
  (Xiaofeng et al. 2019) Uncontrolled Yes No     
  This work etc. Uncontrolled No No     
Mouse (Pusara and Brodley 2004) Controlled Yes Yes Medium No Cheap Desktop Computers
dynamics (Ahmed and Traore 2007) Uncontrolled No Yes     
  (Nakkabi et al. 2010) Uncontrolled No No     
  (Zheng et al. 2011) Controlled Yes No     
  (Feher et al. 2012) Uncontrolled No Yes     
  (Lin et al. 2012) Uncontrolled No Yes     
  (Mondal and Bours 2013) Uncontrolled No No     
  etc.        
Pulse (Rasmussen et al. 2014) Controlled No No High Yes Expensive Desktop Computers
response etc.        
Eye (Kinnunen et al. 2010) Controlled Yes No High Yes Expensive Desktop Computers
movement (Eberz et al. 2015) Controlled Yes No     
  (Eberz et al. 2016) Controlled Yes No     
  etc.        
Touch (Frank et al. 2012) Controlled Yes No Medium No Cheap Portable devices
screen (Cai et al. 2013) Controlled Yes No     
inputs (Feng et al. 2014) Uncontrolled No Yes     
  (Buschek et al. 2015) Controlled Yes No     
  etc.        
Gait (Ailisto et al. 2005) Uncontrolled No No Medium No Cheap Portable devices
pattern (Rong et al. 2007) Uncontrolled No No     
  (Derawi et al. 2010) Controlled Yes Yes     
  etc.        
Voice (Feng et al. 2017) Controlled Yes Yes High Yes Expensive Portable and IoT devices
  etc.